S-400 vs. MEADS
Modern air defense and missile defense systems are not only an integral part of maintaining security of entire countries, protecting them from the enemy aircraft and missiles, but also a deterrence tool. The effectiveness of attacks and the outcome of the war may depend on the performance characteristics of SAMs.
In some cases, the availability of these weapons may force an opponent to revise their plans, and sometimes it may be the cause of friction between two countries. Nearly all countries, regardless of their size, allocate a significant budget for protection of their territories. This is particularly important for great powers in possession of nuclear weapons.
The U.S. and Russia are the leaders in the industry. Perspective S-400, developed by Russia, and MEADS, created by the United States, Germany and Italy, serve as an example.
The most significant differences between the two systems are in the range, and, subsequently, their fitness to this kind of classification. Russian S-400 is an air defense missile system of long and ultra-long -range, and the European-American MEADS is of average range.
It so happens that the majority of experts out of habit that evolved during the Cold War and competition between the S-300 and «Patriot» continue to compare their distant relatives. This comparison is likely possible because SAM is designed to replace the aging complexes mentioned above, though, based on their capabilities, it would be logical to compare the S-400 directly with MEADS and THAAD.
Despite the capability of the interaction of these complexes with other more powerful radar systems such as MEADS with THAAD, and S-400 with radar «Don-2N», in most cases it is still preferable to rely on own radar.
Each S-400 system consists of six SAMs. The command center of the air defense missile systems will process the data from the radar complex, SAM, and other AAMS and ZRPK (S-300, «Thor», «shell-C»), as well as higher command centers. In short, it fully controls the process of the attack with modern air defense / missile defense system in a given area. Radar system (RFCs) for the S-400 is 91N6E, and its range is 600 km.
Anti-aircraft missile system S-400, in turn, consists of a multi-function radar tracking and missile and launchers guidance (up to 12 units). Each complex can function independently from the command and control center and the main RFCs. This feature is provided by 92N6E multifunction radar, although its range is only 400 km. In addition, it can simultaneously track up to 100 targets at the so-called » трассовом сопровождении»» and up to 6 with the exact. Two missiles are aimed at each target, which provides a greater chance of hitting it.
In addition, S-400 has all-altitude radar 96L6E, mobile tower for antenna post 92N6E, logistics complex, electronic intelligence station and, of course, ammunition missiles.
MEADS system division consists of a headquarters battery and three firing batteries. Fire battery will have a single operational and tactical command and control center (BMC4I), radar-round view, two radar target tracking and missile guidance, 6-12 PU and three freight-loading vehicles carrying 12 missiles each. The radar with a phased antenna array can be operated in a fixed position, and rotate at a speed of 7.5 rpm. Multifunction radars are able to rotate at a speed of 15-30 rev / min.
The range of the radar has not been disclosed yet, but likely it will be shorter than that of the Russian S-400 because MEADS is still in the category of medium-range air defense system. It is clear that the battery of the SAM can fire at up to 10 targets simultaneously (S-400 can fire at six targets). This difference has to do with a single battery in two multifunction radars.
Most differences between the two weapons are evident when comparing the technical characteristics of the missiles and their ability to engage different types of targets at a distance. MEADS system is capable of firing two types of missiles: PAC-3 MSE and IRIS-T SL. The former is a modernized version of the PAC-3 missile and is used in new Patriot complexes, the latter is a ground version of the German missile air-to-air close combat IRIS-T.
One launcher will accommodate eight missiles PAC-3 MSE with a range of 120 km and so far unknown number of IRIS-T SL that can replace the more expensive PAC-3 for preventing attacks and destroying various types of aircraft, cruise missiles and precision-guided weapons at the range of about 30 km.
MEADS can reach targets at the altitude of 25 km. The minimum launch range (for PAC-3 MSE) is 3 km. The real breakthrough for the MEADS development is the ability to vertically launch missiles that can fire at a target in 360 degrees radius, although this technology has been used by the USSR in the first versions of the S-300 in the late 1960’s.
The S-400 has a wider spectrum of surface-to-use range missiles — six (12 with variations). Three types are used in the S-300 and other three are new ones. This number of weapons used will ensure a significant survival rate of the complex when fending off an attack. Conventional missiles used in the S-300 have a range of 150-250 km. The new missiles 40N6E tested recently will form the basis of the S-400.
Despite the fact that the new missile will measure slightly different than the S-300 missiles, it is capable of hitting targets at a distance of 400 kilometers and an altitude of 185 km, i.e., in the near space. In terms of range it not only surpassed THAAD, but came close to the sea-based missile defense system Aegis, but, unlike the latter, it is not able to hit targets moving at orbital velocity — warheads of intercontinental ballistic missiles and satellites. Another difference with THAAD missiles and Aegis is the inability to capture the kinetic purposes.
9M96E2 and 9M96E and variations will be used in the anti-missile system of sea-based «Redoubt». These missiles can destroy not only the enemy’s aircraft, but also ballistic missiles. The range is between 1 km and 50-150 km (150 km for 9M96E2) and altitude of 35 km.
S-400 launcher is capable of carrying 4 large rockets and 16 lighter missiles. Its important feature is the ability to place different types of missiles on a launcher. For example, eight 9M96E missiles and two 40N6E missiles can be placed on one launcher.
Another essential difference between the S-400 and MEADS is their ability to withstand missile threat. MEADS can intercept ballistic missiles of medium range up to 1,000 km, while S-400 can intercept ballistic missiles with ranges up to 3,500 km, and at a distance of 7 to 60 km.
Both air defense / missile defense systems are mobile and currently there is no information on how much time it takes to deploy MEADS. The S-400 can be brought into a state of readiness in just 5-10 minutes. They can be transported by rail, air and water. For emergency delivery of MEADS into a theater of war C-130 Hercules (USA) and the Airbus A400M (EU) will be used.
The U.S. plans to buy 48 anti-aircraft missiles, Germany — 24 and Italy — 9. In the U.S. they will replace the «Patriot,» in Italy «Nike Hercules» and in Germany «Improved Hawk» and «Patriot.» Currently production of 81 units is planned, with the total cost (including the development) of 20 billion dollars. However, this number may change during subsequent modifications and testing.
The S-400 is designed to replace the S-300 and S-200. By 2020, it is planned to acquire 56 battalions (28 regiments). Along with the advanced S-500 they will form the basis of future missile defense of Russia. There was information that Turkey was ready to give up the S-300 in favor of S-400, but Russia does not intend to sell the complex until it provides it to its own air and space defense forces. Recently it was announced that Belarus and Kazakhstan will acquire first S-400 as early as in 2015, immediately after the start of production of the S-400 and S-500.
Despite the fact that in creation of comparable SAMs many new technologies were used, it is absolutely clear that the S-400 was the winner. There is no doubt that at the moment, this system is the best ground-based air defense system in the world. This complex has bright future and great potential due to a combination of excellent performance characteristics and relatively low cost — about $200 million for a division (in comparison, the cost of Patriot PAC-3 complex reaches $1 billion). Of course, MEADS and S-400 will be 100% comparable only in actual combat, but we can only hope that these «comparison» never happens.
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S-400 — Vikipediya
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|Növü||Zenit raket kompleksi|
|İstismar||28 aprel 2007 — davam edir|
|İstifadə edən ölkə(lər)|| Rusiya|
S-400 (SAM) — Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
S-400 Triumf (Rusia: C-400 «Триумф», pelaporan nama NATO: SA-21 Growler), sebelumnya dikenal sebagai S-300PMU-3, adalah sistem senjata rudal anti-pesawat generasi baru yang dikembangkan oleh Russia’s Almaz Central Design Bureau sebagai upgrade dari keluarga S-300. Saat ini dalam pelayanan terbatas dengan Angkatan Bersenjata Rusia.
S-400 menggunakan tiga rudal yang berbeda untuk menutupi seluruh kinerjanya. Ini adalah rentang sangat panjang 40N6, jarak panjang 48N6 dan rudal jarak menengah 9M96. Masing-masing memiliki kemampuan yang berbeda.
S-400 Triumph dengan julukan NATO SA-21 Growler adalah sistem rudal pertahanan udara yang dikembangkan oleh biro desain Almaz Central – Rusia.Sistem ini dimaksudkan untuk menggantikan sistem pertahanan udara Rusia S-300P dan S-200.S-400 merupakan upgrade dari serangkaian sistem pertahanan udara S-300 dengan rudal permukaan ke udara.Sistem rudal mulai beropersai pada bulan April 2007.Rusia mendirikan empat resimen S-400 untuk menjaga wilayah udara nasional di wilayah Moskow,Ekslave Kaliningrad Baltik dan distrik militer timur.Unit pertahanan udara di wilayah distrik militer Southern juga direncanakan akan dipersenjatai dengan sistem canggih S-400 pada akhir 2012.lebih dari 20 bataliyon S-400 akan dikirim ke Angkatan bersenjata Rusia pada 2015.Rusia juga berencana untuk mendirikan 56 bataliyon S-400 pada tahun 2020.Rusia berniat akan memasok sistem ini ke Cina.selain itu negara Turki juga menyatakan niatnya untuk membeli sistem pertahanan udara S-400 atas ketertarikannya selama pameran IDEF 2009.
Dapat menghancurkan 80 target sekaligus menggunakan 160 rudal.(8*10). .
Sistem ini dapat melibatkan semua jenis target udara termasuk pesawat tempur,UAV,rudal balistik dan jelajah dalam kisaran 400 km pada ketinggian sampai 30 km.Sistem ini dapat melum
«S-400» redirects here. For other uses, see S400.
NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler
S-400 Triumf launch vehicle
|Type||Transportable SAM system|
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Designer||Almaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence (PVO Kontsern)|
|Designed||Late 1990s–Early 2000s|
|Manufacturer||Fakel Machine-Building Design Bureau|
|400 km (40N6 missile)|
250 km (48N6 missile)
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Variants||9M96, 9M96E and 9M96E2|
|Propellant||solid propellant rocket motor|
|40 kilometres (25 mi)|
|Flight ceiling||30 km|
|Boost time||cold launch ejection system|
|inertial guidance with radio command corrections|
|gas dynamic flight control system|
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Propellant||solid propellant rocket motor|
|400 kilometres (250 mi)|
|Flight ceiling||185 km|
|Boost time||cold launch ejection system|
|inertial guidance with radio command corrections|
|gas dynamic flight control system|
The S-400 Triumf (Russian: C-400 «Триумф») is a new generation anti-aircraft weapon system developed by Russia’s Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It is currently in limited service with the Russian Armed Forces.
The S-400’s NATO reporting name is SA-21 Growler, and the system was previously known as S-300PMU-3. It overshadows the capabilities of the other systems from the S-300 series, and its range is at least two times greater than that of the MIM-104 Patriot system.
The S-400 uses 3 different missiles to cover its entire performance envelope. These are the extremely long range 40N6, long range 48N6 and medium range 9M96 missile. Each one has different capabilities.
The development of the S-400 system began in the late 1990s. The system was formally announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1999. On 12 February 1999, the first tests were performed at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan which were reported successful. As a result of this, the S-400 was scheduled for deployment in the Russian army in 2001.
In 2003 it first became apparent that the system was ready for deployment, but in August two high ranking military officials expressed concerns that the S-400 was being tested using ‘obsolete’ interceptors from the S-300P and concluded that it was not ready for production.
Finally the completion of the project was announced in February 2004. In April, a ballistic missile was successfully intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM interceptor missile.
The S-400s radar is capable of tracking over 100 targets at ranges of over 400 km (250 mi), and engaging up to 12 of these targets at varying ranges, depending on the missile used (see infobox).
- The 40N6 very long range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 400 km (250 mi).
- The 48N6 long range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 250 km (160 mi).
- The 9M96 short range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 120 km (75 mi). It has the highest hit probability against fast, manoeuvrable targets such as fighter aircraft.
- The ABM capabilities are near the maximum allowed under the (now void) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
A regular S-400 battalion consists of at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post. On May 21, 2007 the Russian Air Force announced that S-400 would be put on combat duty around Moscow and Central Russia by July 1, 2007 The S-400 was also deployed near the town of Elektrostal.
On August 6, 2007, the first regiment equipped with S-400 entered active service in Moscow Oblast’ near town of Elektrostal, according to Channel One Russia. This is the 606th Guards ‘Zenith’ Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command.
On February 8, 2008, Lt. Gen. Vladimir Sviridov announced that Russia will be replacing the S-300 systems in the Northwest of Russia with the more technologically advanced S-400. Russian military experts expect that Russia plans for this system to be in place and represent a major component of their ballistic missile defense system until 2020.
In September 2006 Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov announced a new state program of armaments for 2007–2015. This program provides for the purchase of 18 missile battalions of S-400’s.
On March 17, 2009 Russia’s defense minister announced that a second regiment equipped with advanced S-400 Triumf air defense missile systems has been put into combat service.
On August 26, 2009, the General Staff said S-400 systems had been deployed in the Russian Far East to counter possible North Korean missile tests and prevent fragments from falling on Russian territory.
In February 2011 a second unit of S-400 missile systems was deployed at Dubrovki, north of Moscow. The 210th Air Defence Regiment consists of two battalions, each consisting of eight launch points, each with four missiles. It was also announced that the missile system will be deployed on the Kuril Islands in Russia’s Far East.
On August 23, 2007 RIA Novosti reported that their sources indicated that Russia will not export the S-400 for the next few years.
A simplified version of the S-400, designated the HQ-19, was developed jointly with China. China provided the majority of the funding for development. Photos of the S-400 in China were released by Jane’s Information Group in May 2009. Russia has also offered the system to the United Arab Emirates and Greece.
During the 2009 International Defence Industry Fair in Istanbul Turkey expressed interest in buying the system.
Vice Chairman of Russia’s State Duma Vladimir Zhirinovsky has urged the fast delivery of the S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems to Iran.
On August 24, 2009, RIA Novosti reported that their sources indicated that Belarus had submitted a formal request for two battalions of S-400 systems.India and Iran have also shown interest in this system. In the Turkish Long Range Anti Aircraft Missile Program S-400 is competing with Patriot Advanced Capability 3. SSM is going to make a decision in 2010.
In September 2009, it was reported that the S-400 system is part of a two billion dollar arms deal between Russia and Saudi Arabia. Under the deal, the Saudi kingdom would be purchasing at least eight launch units and up to thirty two missiles.
South Korea is developing a simplified version of the S-400 called M-SAM Cheolmae-2 with the help of Almaz. The prime contractor is Samsung Thales, a joint venture between Samsung and Thales. The M-SAM will be composed of an X band multi-function radar vehicle built by Samsung Thales in technical cooperation with Almaz, and fire-control vehicles and transporter erector launchers built by Doosan. LIG Nex1 will provide the missiles.
- Saudi Arabia – Ordered eight systems, but the deal has reportedly stalled due to pressure from the US.
- ^ a b c d e «S-400 Triumf (SA-21 ‘Growler’) (Russian Federation), Defensive weapons». Jane’s Information Group. February 11, 2010. http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Strategic-Weapon-Systems/S-400-Triumf-SA-21-Growler-Russian-Federation.html. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- ^ http://armstass.su/?page=article&aid=84164&cid=25
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- ^ «Systém S-400 připraven k obraně Moskvy [The S-400 is ready to defend Moscow]» (in Czech). RIA Novosti. Moscow, Russia: The Internet Archive Wayback Machine. May 31, 2007. Archived from the original on July 3, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070703071756/http://www.atmonline.cz/news/2007/kveten/310507b.htm. Retrieved December 9, 2010. «…S-400 will be given to full combat readiness to defend Moscow and central Russia (near the town of Elektrostal in the Moscow region) on 1 July 2007.»
- ^ «Russia to Belarus fearing of Ukraine». Charter97.org. April 15, 2008. http://charter97.org/en/news/2008/4/15/5746/. Retrieved December 10, 2010. «…sources report the regiment based at Elektrostal is the 606th Guards ‘Zenith’ Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command»
- ^ «Russia moves to longer-range interceptors». United Press International. February 8, 2008. http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Top_News/2008/02/08/russia_moves_to_longer-range_interceptors/9376/. Retrieved December 9, 2010. «Russian military experts expect the S-400 to be the backbone of the country’s missile defenses through at least 2020.»
- ^ «Оружия не хватит – Для переоснащения армии нет средств [The Army cannot afford enough weapons for retooling]» (in Russian). Vedomosti. August 8, 2008. http://www.vedomosti.ru/newspaper/article.shtml?2006/08/07/110626. Retrieved December 9, 2010. «LG-2015 provides for… the purchase of… 18 anti-aircraft missile battalions of S-400»
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- ^ http://en.rian.ru/mlitary_news/20110216/162635663.html
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- ^ «First Photos of S-400 in China.». China Defense Blog. May 22, 2009. http://china-defense.blogspot.com/2009/05/first-photos-of-s-400-in-china.html. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- ^ «Russia’s S-400 System Strikes Imagination and Everything Else in the Sky». Pravda Online. February 2, 2010. http://english.pravda.ru/russia/kremlin/24-02-2010/112355-s400-0/. Retrieved December 9, 2010. «Russia has also offered the system to the United Arab Emirates and Greece.»
- ^ «Turkey hopes to buy S-400 air defense systems from Russia». RIA Novosti. April 27, 2009. http://en.rian.ru/russia/20090427/121328739.html. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- ^ «Iran’s army to be equipped with S-400». PressTV. September 5, 2007. http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=21983§ionid=351020602. Retrieved December 10, 2010. «Vice Chairman of Russia’s State Duma Vladimir Zhirinovsky has urged the fast delivery of the magnificent S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems to Iran.»
- ^ Belarus asks Russia for S-400 SAM systems by 2010 – source
- ^ a b Saudi Arabia signs 2 billion dollar weapons deal with Russia – source
- ^ New Contract: ALMAZ Corp. creates Multi-functional radar for South Korea
- ^ http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Missiles-And-Rockets-2007/Samsung-Thales-begins-M-SAM-radar-production.html
- ^ http://www.doosan.com/doosanmottrol/en/products/defence/protection.page?
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- ^ Eugene Yanko, Copyright 1997 – warfare.ru (1999-02-12). «SA-21 GROWLER / S400 Triumph Long Range TABM/SAM | Russian Arms, Military Technology, Analysis of Russia’s Military Forces». Warfare.ru. http://warfare.ru/?lang=&catid=264&linkid=1699. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- ^ Riyadh mulls big Russian missile buy